How to Design A Staircase

  • What is Staircase

Stair: The steps that made for moving from one floor to other floor called Stairs or Staircase.

  • What Is Trade

Trade: Trade is the horizontal part of the step. In other words, the horizontal part of the staircase, called Trade.

  • What is Riser

Riser: The riser is a vertical part of two steps, which provides support to the trade.

    • Mention the relation between Tread and Rise According to American and Indian Standard

Under the rules of different building codes, the value of the trade and riser is determined. As the slab shield is usually kept between 25 degrees to 45 degrees. Therefore, the relationship between trade and riser is especially important. Following the rules below, the exact value of the trade and riser is available.

1. According to American Code:

  • Trade + Riser = 44 cm
  • Trade * Raiser = 400 to 450 cm2

2. According To Indian Code:

  • Trade + 2*Riser = 60 cm
  • Trade * Riser = 400 to 410 cm2
  • State The Formula Used in Calculating Weight of  Waist Slab and Steps:

 To design stairs slab, 1 m strip has to be taken. In order to decide on the design load later, waist slab weight and step weight is to be a calculation. In order to determine the weight of the waist slab and step in the following way.

 fig-1: Staircase Design

1. Waist  Slab Weight Calculation Formula:


  • R = Height of The Riser, cm
  • T = Width of Trade, cm
  • S = thickness of the west slab, cm.

  • Calculating 1-meter strip:

W = concrete unit weight = 2400 kg / m3

Leaned distance = √(R2+T2) cm

If the horizontal distance of the west slab is 1 meter, leaned distance 


The thickness of the waist Slab is S cm and width is 1 meter, the size of the slab =


Horizontal field weight per square meter of the waist slab = 

The approximate thickness of the waist slab is usually 4 to 5 cm for every meter span length.


2. Step Weight Calculation Formula:

The horizontal length of every meter is calculated by the weight of the step.

The area of the step=

The Volume of the step=



The weight of the step in single length=

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